Ken Burns Classroom

Lessons in Leadership, Roosevelt Style

Overview:

President Theodore Roosevelt and his distant cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt were born of privilege but cared little about social class or status. As presidents, they reinterpreted the role of government from limited by Constitutional constraints to exercising any power not prohibited by the Constitution. They loved the American people and the land that nurtured them. They were also ambitious, impatient and looked for opportunities to help the common man. The displayed unbounded optimism and self-confidence and effective leadership throughout their time in office. As a result, they transformed the office of the president and the power exercised by its occupant.

Lesson Description

In this lesson, students will identify the qualities of a good leader and leadership qualities within themselves. They will explore major events of the two Roosevelts administrations where each president exercised leadership in challenging situations and create presentations on these events and the leadership the president displayed. They will then analyze one of these events and answer the question “What would you do if you were President?”

Lesson Objectives (the student will…)

  • describe the qualities of an effective leader and analyze their leadership qualities
  • research and analyze key events during the Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt administrations
  • formulate a presentation focusing on the leadership of one of the Roosevelt presidents during the event
  • evaluate the president leadership during the event and explain the actions they would have taken in the same situation and the leadership quality they would employ.
  • evaluate their leadership effectiveness during the activities in the lesson

Estimated Time: (Note: If time is an issue, some of the research aspects and presentation development of the lesson may be assigned as homework.)

  • Opening Activity: “What are your Leadership Qualities” – 1 class period
  • Video Viewing Activity: Roosevelt Leadership – 1-2 class periods
  • Main Activity: Presidential Leadership Presentation – 1-2 class periods (less with homework) 1-2 class periods for presentations
  • Final Activity: 1 class period.

Materials Needed:

  • Computers with Internet access for research. (The teacher may wish to utilize a computer lab where each student or student has access to their own computer to complete the presentation.)
  • Presentation resources such as “Glogster”, “Prezi”, Google Sites, or Wix. Tutorial sites for these resources can be found in the web resources section.
  • The teacher may also elect to have video recording equipment in order to record the presentations, if desired.

Lesson Procedure:

Opening Activity– Leadership Qualities

In this activity, students will explore the qualities of an effective leader and assess their own leadership qualities.

Part 1 – Identifying an Effective Leader

  1. Divide the class into small groups of 3-4 students.
  2. Distribute the student handout “What are your Leadership Qualities” to each student and review the background and directions.
  3. Facilitate the discussions on Part 1 as students brainstorm qualities that make a good leader. Each group should generate 10 qualities.
  4. When students have finished their list of leadership qualities, ask each group to identify their top three leadership qualities and create a master list of 10 on the front board.

Part 2-Identifying Leadership Qualities in Yourself

  1. Adopted from “Characteristics of Good Leaders” http://www.slideshare.net/guest11ce8/characteristics-of-good-leaders-presentation and “Leaders’ Questionnaire” http://www.buzzle.com/articles/leadership-activities-games-to-build-teamwork.html#leaders-question
  2. Have students individually complete Part 2, identifying their own leadership qualities. When identifying their goals (Question 1) tell them these should be general goals, such as “successfully completing the activity”, “doing their best”, or “coming out on top.”
  3. In answering the second question, students need to be a little introspective in identifying the leadership qualities they. They have many leadership qualities, but should identify the ones that help them achieve their goals they’ve identified and provide a solid explanation of how these qualities help achieve the goals.
  4. When students have finished Part 2, have students reconvene in their small groups.

Parts 3 and 4: Leadership Scenarios and Reflecting on your Actions

  1. Direct students attention to Parts 3 and 4 on the handout.
  2. Have student groups pick one of the four scenarios or assign one scenario to each group. Provide time for them to complete the activity and prepare to share their findings.
  3. Facilitate a discussion asking groups to describe which leadership quality would be most effective responding to the situation and explain how these qualities would help achieve the goals. During the discussion, ask other students to comment.
  4. Ask for volunteers to discuss their reflections on different parts of the activity. Collect their individual responses for feedback on the activity.

Video Viewing Activity – Roosevelt Leadership

Explain to students that in this activity they will research a key events surrounding the presidencies of Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt from The Roosevelts: An Intimate History. They will then work in groups to develop a presentation on one event to share with the class.

  1. Divide the class into 13 groups.
  2. Distribute the handout “List of Video Segments.” Either have each group select one of the video segments or assign one to each group. Note that some of the numbered video segments have two or more clips in them. Links to these clips can be found on The Roosevelts: An Intimate History website (http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/the-roosevelts/classroom/lesson-plans/). The clips can also be located on the DVD following the time codes provided.
  3. Now distribute the “Roosevelt Leadership” handout to all students.
  4. Read aloud or have students read the background history. Then quickly debrief with the following questions:
    • What surprised you about the two Roosevelt presidents?
    • Explain how different elements from each president’s early life contributed positively to making them a good leader.
    • Identify similar personal characteristics the two Roosevelts shared and explain how these would enable them to be good leaders.
  5. Move to the “Video Viewing Graphic Organizer Template” Review the directions with students and provide time for them to complete the graphic organizer template on their assigned video segment. (Note: If pressed for time, the teacher can have student groups view the clips and complete the organizer as homework.)

Presidential Leadership Presentation

Explain to students that in this activity, they will formulate a presentation using from their research in the video viewing activity. As an alternative, the presentation can also be produced on poster board.

  1. Keep students in their research groups and distribute the handout, “Presidential Leadership Presentation Guidelines” to all students.
  2. Review the directions making sure they understand the requirements of the assignment.
  3. Provide time for students to complete their presentations incorporating their earlier research. Some parts of the presentation can be completed as homework. If using presentation technology, groups should select which platform they want to use to deliver their presentation. Online resources that can help students create presentations are included in the web-based resources section of the lesson. (Note: If pressed for time, the teacher can have student groups view the clips and complete the organizer as homework.)
  4. Have students make their presentations to the class. Distribute the Presentation Evaluation Forms to all students in the audience and have them evaluate the presentations. Gather and share with presentation groups. After all presentations are complete, have students individually complete the Post-Presentation Assessment and submit to you.

Final Activity

In this activity, students will have the opportunity to address a major event facing one of the Roosevelt presidents (other than their own presentation) and personally address the situation on their own terms. Students will select one of the presidential leadership events and explain how they would address the event if they were president.

  1. Have the full class meet. Distribute the handout, “What would you do if you were President?” Explain to students that in this activity, they will get an opportunity to personally address one of the situations they witnessed in the presentations.
  2. Read the overview to students and discuss the proposition that it suggests. Discuss the concept of “presentism” where present-day ideas and perspectives are introduced into depictions of the past. It’s a pastime many people engage in to help them understand history and the actions of others. At its worst, it can lead to a sense of moral superiority over people who have gone before. But it can also provide a deeper understanding of the actions people of the past took and the reasons they took them.
  3. Have students individually select (or assign each student) one of the events presented in the last activity (see List of Video Segments handout). They are to select any event other than their own.
  4. Using their notes and a copy of the other student’s presentation they are to formulate a response to the event following the guidelines in the final activity handout.

Assessment Suggestions

At the conclusion of the lesson, the teacher should evaluate students on the following:

  • Active participation during discussions and activities.
  • Completion of graphic organizers from the Opening Activity, the Video Viewing Activity, the Presentation Evaluation Forms, and the Post-presentation Assessment.
  • Evaluate students’ presidential leadership presentation and the essay using suitable rubrics. Example rubrics that can either be used “as is” or adapted for a particular class are included at the end of the lesson.

Extensions/Adaptations

  • Eleanor Roosevelt displayed her own brand of leadership. She broke the mold of “First Lady” by being her husband’s political operative and pushing members of Congress, the public, and often times FDR himself to pursue his political agenda. Have students research the leadership style of Eleanor Roosevelt as a behind the scenes operative. How many of the events involving FDR (The New Deal, civil rights, Jewish refugees, etc.) in this lesson did Eleanor have some influence? What was that influence? How successful was she in creating change or solving a problem? What lessons can be learned from her leadership?
  • There are many resources that discuss effective methods of leadership. The analysis model in the Main Activity can be adapted for many of these different methods. You can have students use any of these other methods to analyze the leadership qualities of various political figures or national leaders engaged in challenging situations.
  • Have students delve deeper into understanding their leadership potential by conducting a Meyers-Briggs personality activity. A classroom activity can be found at http://www.ferndale.wednet.edu/sites/default/files/pagedocuments/FourCornersActivity.pdf. Have students complete the activity, then assess themselves on how close they feel the activity was to their leadership personality and whether the activity would help them in future group activities.
  • Whenever students are engaged in a cooperative learning activity, have them do a self- assessment similar to the Post-Presentation Assessment in the Presentation activity.

Standards

McREL http://www.mcrel.org/compendium/browse.asp)

U.S.  History

  •      Standard 20: Understands how Progressives and others addressed problems of industrial capitalism, urbanization, and political corruption

Level IV (Grades 9-12)

  1. Understands how racial and ethnic events influenced American society during the Progressive era
  •      Standard 29: Understands the struggle for racial and gender equality and for the extension of civil liberties

Level IV (Grades 9-12) 2. Understands conflicting perspectives on different issues addressed by the women’s rights movement (e.g., the Equal Rights Amendment, Title VII, and Roe

  1. Wade)

Civics

  •      Standard 3: Understands the sources, purposes, and functions of law, and the importance of the rule of law for the protection of individual rights and the common good

Level IV (Grades 9-12)

  1. Knows alternative ideas about the purposes and functions of law (e.g., regulating relationships among people and between people and their government; providing order, predictability, security, and established procedures for the management of conflict; regulating social and economic relationships in civil society)
  •      Standard 9: Understands the importance of Americans sharing and supporting certain values, beliefs, and principles of American constitutional democracy

Level IV (Grades 9-12)

  1.     Understands the interdependence among certain values and principles (e.g., individual liberty and diversity)
  2. Understands the significance of fundamental values and principles for the individual and society
  •      Standard 14: Understands issues concerning the disparities between ideals and reality in American political and social life

Level IV (Grades 9-12)

  1.     Understands the importance of established ideals in political life and why Americans should insist that current practices constantly be compared with these ideals
  2. Knows discrepancies between American ideals and the realities of American social and political life (e.g., the ideal of equal opportunity and the reality of unfair discrimination)
  3.     Knows historical and contemporary efforts to reduce discrepancies between ideals and reality in American public life (e.g., union movements, government programs such as Head Start, civil rights legislation and enforcement)
  •   Standard 21: Understands the formation and implementation of public policy

Level III (Grades 6-8)

  1. Knows how public policies are formed and implemented, and understands how citizens can monitor and influence policies

Level IV (Grades 9-12)

  1.     Understands the processes by which public policy concerning a local, state, or national issue is formed and carried out
  2.     Knows the points at which citizens can monitor or influence the process of public policy formation

NCSS C3 (College, Career, and Civic Life) http://www.socialstudies.org/c3

Dimension 1: Developing questions and planning inquiries.

Dimension 2: Applying Disciplinary Concepts and Tools

  •   Civics:
  •      D2: Civ.6.3.5. Describe ways in which people benefit from and are challenged by working together, including through government, workplaces, voluntary organizations, and families.
  •      D2.Civ.5.9-12. Evaluate citizens’ and institutions’ effectiveness in addressing social and political problems at the local, state, tribal, national, and/or international level.

•      History

  •      D2.His.3.6-8. Use questions generated about individuals and groups to analyze why they, and the developments they shaped, are seen as historically significant.
  •      D2.His.16. Organize applicable evidence into a coherent argument about the past.
  •   D2.His.16.9-12. Integrate evidence from multiple relevant historical sources and interpretations into a reasoned argument about the past.

Dimension 4:

  •      D4.1.6-8. Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the strengths and limitations of the arguments.
  •      D4.1.9-12. Construct arguments using precise and knowledgeable claims, with evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging counterclaims and evidentiary weaknesses.

Common Core State Standards (http://www.corestandards.org/

Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects

  •      RH.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
  •      RH.9-10.2 Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
  •      RH.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole.
  •      RH.11-12.3 Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence, acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain.

Speaking and Listening

  •      SL.7-12.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one- on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 7-12 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

Writing

•      W.7-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

About The Authors

Greg Timmons

Greg Timmons has been a social studies teacher for over 30 years. He has written lessons for several PBS productions including The NewsHour, FRONTLINE, and various Ken Burns’s productions including The War, The National Parks: America’s Best Idea Baseball, Prohibition and The Dust Bowl.” He resides in Montana and Washington state.

Handout: What are your Leadership Qualities?

PART 1: Identifying an Effective Leader

Background: Have you ever been in a group activity where you knew leadership was needed? The group members didn’t understand what was being asked of them, they lacked motivation and weren’t sure where to start? There didn’t seem to be anyone in the group willing or knowing how to take the lead. You thought about taking on the role yourself, but do you know what leadership qualities you have that would benefit the group? Knowing effective leadership qualities will help you select a good one or become a great one.

Directions: Think about leaders you know and the qualities they possess. Do people trust and/or admire them and why? Are they good looking, popular, honest, funny, confident, or enthusiastic? Do they take responsibility to get things done? What leadership skills do they possess?

In your group, brainstorm ten qualities of a good leader and write them in the space below. Remember, putting your trust in a leader gives them the right to decide the focus, priority, and direction of the activity or project. Think carefully about what qualities are needed to make those types of decisions.

TEN QUALITIES OF AN EFFECTIVE LEADER

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

  1.   

 

 

PART 2: Identifying Leadership Qualities in Yourself

Name:  

Directions: Are you a good leader? Do you possess any of the qualities you identified in the first activity? To find out, answer the survey below.

  1. When you are involved in a group activity—team sports, an assignment in school, an extra-curricular or out-of-school activity—what general goals would you hope to accomplish? (List three)

 

 

2. List three leadership qualities you have that would help you achieve the goal(s) you listed above. (You may select any of the qualities listed in Part 1 that apply to you or list other

qualities you have.)

Leadership Qualities How the leadership quality would help achieve the goal

 

Part 3: Small Group Activity – Leadership Scenarios

Imagine you are leading an activity and face one of the following scenarios. In your small group, review the scenario and collectively decide on an effective response. Describe which leadership quality would be most effective in responding to the situation and explain why. Your group has to come to a unanimous consensus on what to do; no “majority rules” in deciding. Have one of your group members write the response on a separate sheet of paper to share later with the class.

  1. You are leading a team of fellow students and a member is not ready to follow your lead. What do you do?
  2. A team member is placing blame for his/her underperformance on another team member. What do you say to the team member placing blame and to the team member being blamed?
  3. You have two team members of equal talent and skills able do a specific task. What process would you take to choose only one to complete the task and how would you explain to both of them your decision?
  4. You have a team member who is very good at what he/she does. The only problem is that the team member is difficult to work with, bossy, and unfriendly. What do you say to this person to get them to be more of a team player?

In your group’s response, be sure to include the scenario number, a description of the action you took and the leadership quality or qualities you chose to effectively respond to the situation.

Part 4 – Reflecting on your Actions

Directions: Now it’s your opportunity to reflect on the activity you just completed and how well you think the group and you addressed the task of responding to the scenario. Individually, respond to the following points on a separate sheet of paper:

  • Describe the scenario you had to address.
  • Explain how your group made decisions in addressing the scenario.
  • Analyze how successful the group was in developing a response to the scenario.
  • Describe the leadership qualities you saw displayed by you and members of your group during the activity.
  • Explain whether there were any disagreements during the discussions and how conflicts resolved.
  • Summarize how you felt about the decisions being made. What role did you play in these decisions?
  • Evaluate whether the method you took to address the scenario were good or was there a better way your group could have completed this activity and if so, describe how?

Handout: Roosevelt Leadership

Background History: Theodore Roosevelt became president at a time meant for him. The U.S. was entering what would become known as the “American Century.” The country now controlled all its territory coast to coast and was becoming an industrialized economic giant.

America was emerging as a leader in nearly all facets of modern society—science, inventions, transportation, medicine, production, etc. ‘TR” would prove to be a brand-new president for a brand-new century. Described once as a steam-engine in trousers, he was a hyper-active adult with unbounded energy and a passion for getting things done. Brilliant, perhaps close to genius, he could speed-read before anyone knew what it was, spoke a variety of languages—most incomprehensibly—but that didn’t slow him down. Born into privilege, he cared little about social class or standing. He had a reputation for independence and unpredictability and saw the world in terms of right and wrong and always saw himself as the defender of the right. He once said that he felt he didn’t have talent for anything except the talent of leadership.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt came to power as the nation was about to face its two most decisive tests of the 20th century, the Great Depression and World War II. But he didn’t start life out as a man of destiny. Born the only child of one of America’s well-to-do families, he was doted on and coddled by this parents. Nothing was spared in his upbringing: servants, tutors, family trips overseas. He was the center of his parents’ world. His mother, in particular, devoted herself to him then dominated much of his life into adulthood. His father taught him the social customs of a man of leisure—hunting and sailing—and instilled in him honor, kindness and unfailing good humor. But all this changed. In 1921, FDR contracted infantile paralysis—polio—that crippled him from the hips down. But the disease would transform him from someone who asked “what can the world do for me” to a man of great empathy for others who suffer and instilled in him a great ambition and big goals.

Between them, the two Roosevelt men held the office of the president for nineteen of the first forty-five years of the 20th century. They belonged to different political parties, overcame different obstacles, and had different temperaments and styles of leadership. By it is the similarities between the two that meant the most to history. Both were born of privilege and saw themselves as champions of the working man. They shared a sense of stewardship over the still untamed and untainted treasures of the country. They loved people and were political junkies sharing a firm belief that the United States had an important role to play in the wider world. They both held the belief that government was not limited by the Constitution, but could do anything not specifically prohibited in the Constitution. Both were hugely ambitious, impatient, and took great delight in the ability to do good. They both displayed unbounded optimism and self- confidence and had an uncanny ability to rally men and women to their cause.

Brief Discussion Questions:

  • What surprised you about the two Roosevelt presidents?
  • Explain how different elements from each president’s early life contributed positively to making them a good leader.
  • Identify similar personal characteristics the two Roosevelts shared and explain how these would enable them to be good leaders.

 

Handout: Video Viewing Graphic Organizer Template

Overview: Both Roosevelt presidents were known for their dynamic leadership styles. Both were tested during dramatic events in American history. In this activity, your group will explore an event during the tenure of one of these presidents where they exercised effective leadership. The research you gather in this activity will be developed into a presentation for the class.

 

Directions: As you view your assigned video segment, take notes on the following questions. You may have to review the segment more than once. When necessary supplement your information with research from a textbook or other sources and previous activities in this lesson. If necessary, use additional sheets of paper.

 

1. Describe the main event or events featured in the video clip
 

 

 

2. Describe the economic, social, and/or political factors related to the event.
Economic

 

Social

 

Political

 

 

 

3. Describe the action or actions taken by either Theodore or Franklin Roosevelt. (Circle the president’s name you’re reporting on.)
 

 

What goals did the president want to achieve and how would the actions taken help achieve these goals?
 

 

 

4. Explain the costs and benefits of taking the action.
Costs Benefits
 

 

 

 

 

5. Explain the effectiveness of the action(s) taken and whether they achieved none, some, or all of the intended result?
 

 

Explain why or why not?
 

 

 

 

6. How did people at the time perceive the action(s) when they were taken?
 

 

If different than now, explain how the perception is different now and the reasons there was a change in perception.
 

 

 

7. Identify and explain the leadership quality the president exercised in this event.
 

 

Handout: Presidential Leadership Presentation Guidelines

Overview: In this activity, you and your research team will investigate one of several events in the lives of either Theodore or Franklin Roosevelt. You will then formulate a technology presentation to present to the class. You will to want to plan your project carefully to provide useful and accurate information. Consider dividing the work up among members of the team to better utilize your time.

Directions: Begin developing your presentation using the research you conducted in the Video Viewing Activity and other sources. Develop creative ways to present your information incorporating maps, charts, and graphs, pictures, political cartoons, and video where appropriate. Some of these resources can be found at the Image Gallery on The Roosevelts: An Intimate History website (http://www.pbs.org/kenburns/the-roosevelts/image-gallery/) or other online sources.

  1. Make your presentations 3-5 minutes in length and organize it following the order of questions in the “Video Viewing Graphic Organizer Template” handout.
  2. Formulate your information into a presentation using one of the technology platforms listed below. Incorporate maps, charts, graphs, pictures, political cartoons and video segments where appropriate.
  3. If formulating a “hard copy” presentation, create a large poster presentation or a series of posters that present your information.
  4. Points to remember:
    • Make sure your presentations is attractive and eye-catching (use legible fonts, attractive colors and adequate spacing)
    • Put information in bullet points whenever possible; short messages are easier to read.
    • Proper grammar, spelling and writing mechanics.
  5. Complete the Post-presentation Assessment report (see second page) after you’ve made your presentation.

Presentation Technology Platforms

 

Handout: Presentation Evaluation Form

Directions: Listen carefully to the presentations and evaluate them using the following guide. Rate the presentations on the scale of 1 being low and 5 being high.

Name of Group Presenting:  

Presentation Content:

Organization: information is organized and well presented. 1 2 3 4 5
Amount of Information: All topics are address and all questions answered. 1 2 3 4 5
Quality of Information: information clearly relates to the main topic and includes supporting details and/or examples 1 2 3 4 5

 

Presentation Skills

Eye contact: Presenter’s eyes are focused on the audience at least 50% of the time and they look around the room not and in one place. 1 2 3 4 5
Voice: Presenter speaks clearly, in an adequate volume. Pacing of speech is not too fast or slow. 1 2 3 4 5
Organization: Presentation is well organized following a logical order and the visual is clear to see. 1 2 3 4 5

Handout: Post-Presentation Assessment

Directions: Individually, write a post-presentation report by answering the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

  • Comment on how your group worked together in this activity. How successful was the process you used to complete the activity?
  • What role did you take during the development of the presentation? Did you assume any of the qualities of leadership you identified for yourself in the opening activity and if so, which ones. If not, why not?
  • Were there any disagreements during the development process and how were they handled? What role did you play in these discussions?
  • What role did you take during the actual presentation? Did you assume any of the qualities of leadership you identified for yourself in the opening activity and if so, which ones. If not, why not?
  • Evaluate whether there was a better way your group could have completed this activity and if so, describe how and how you would have played a different role? If not, describe why not.

Handout: What would you do if you were President?

Overview: Have you ever wondered, as you explore history, what you would do if you were president and faced any of the events past presidents have faced while in office? We often times put ourselves in the shoes of others and think, “Would we take the same action they did, or would we avoid the mistakes of the past?” Be aware that if you were they, you would have their perspective of the situation and their experiences to draw on, not the perspective and experiences you have today. This way of looking at history is called “presentism” where present-day ideas and perspectives are introduced into depictions of the past. It’s a pastime many people engage in to help them understand history and the actions of others. At its worst, it can lead to a sense of moral superiority over people who have gone before. But it can also provide a deeper understanding of the actions people of the past took and the reasons they took them.

With that understanding, this activity gives you the opportunity to place yourself into history, analyze one of the events one of the Roosevelts faced, the actions they took, the goals they hoped to achieve, the effectiveness of their actions, and the public’s reaction. You will then evaluate the president’s actions and ask yourself, what would you do if you were president?

Directions: Select one of the events presented earlier from you classmates. Formulate a response to the event following these guidelines

  1. Describe the event and the economic, social, and/or political factors related to it.
  2. Describe the goals the president wanted to achieve and how would the actions taken by the president help achieve these goals?
  3. Explain the costs and benefits the president faced in taking action on this event.
  4. Explain how effective their actions were in addressing the event and whether their actions achieved the intended result and the reasons why.
  5. Describe the public’s opinion at the time to the presidents’ actions and how those opinions might differ now.
  6. Explain what actions you would have taken, the leadership qualities you would have incorporated into these actions and how these actions would have been effective. You aren’t saying your actions would have been better, because that would be presentism. You’re just explaining what you would have done if you were in the same situation.

Handout: Assessment Rubric: Presidential Leadership Presentation

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Organization Information is very organized with well- constructed paragraphs and subheadings. Information is organized with well-constructed paragraphs. Information is organized, but paragraphs are not well-constructed. The information appears to be disorganized.
Amount of Information All topics are addressed and all questions answered with at least 2 sentences about each. All topics are addressed and most questions answered with at least 2 sentences about each. All topics are addressed, and most questions answered with 1 sentence about each. One or more topics were not addressed.
Quality of Information Information clearly relates to the main topic. It includes several supporting details and/or examples. Information clearly relates to the main topic. It provides 1-2 supporting details and/or examples. Information clearly relates to the main topic. No details and/or examples are given. Information has little or nothing to do with the main topic.
Presentation (requirements) Presentation completely fulfills all requirements in student handout Presentation nearly fulfills all requirements in student handout Presentation generally fulfills most of the requirements in student handout Presentation does not fulfill requirements or fulfills less than 50% of requirements in student handout
Mechanics No grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Almost no grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors A few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors.

Handout: Assessment Rubric: What would you do if you were President? Essay

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Organization Information is very organized with well- constructed paragraphs and subheadings. Information is organized with well-constructed paragraphs. Information is organized, but paragraphs are not well-constructed. The information appears to be disorganized.
Amount of Information All topics are addressed and all questions answered with at least 2 sentences about each. All topics are addressed and most questions answered with at least 2 sentences about each. All topics are addressed, and most questions answered with 1 sentence about each. One or more topics were not addressed.
Quality of Information Information clearly relates to the main topic. It includes several supporting details and/or examples. Information clearly relates to the main topic. It provides 1-2 supporting details and/or examples. Information clearly relates to the main topic. No details and/or examples are given. Information has little or nothing to do with the main topic.
Voice The writer’s voice is individual and engaging, demonstrating awareness of and respect for the audience and the purpose. The writer’s voice is appropriate to the purpose and engages the audience. The writer’s voice is generally clear but may not be fully engaged with the audience or purpose. The writer’s voice is indifferent and unengaged with the audience and purpose.
Mechanics No grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors. Almost no grammatical, spelling or punctuation errors A few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors.